Focus by Country


< Bulgaria

New Processed Engineered Fuel installation (Zlatna Panega cement plant, Bulgaria)

In mid-2011, the Zlatna Panega cement plant commissioned its new installation for alternative fuels. In July, testing of the shredding equipment was performed and in August the first energy recovery from the new alternative fuels was successfully accomplished. The total investment cost for the entire installation has been €5.7 million. This new alternative fuel installation, the first of its kind within the TITAN Group, is designed for the production of PEF (Processed Engineered Fuel). PEF is a fuel of uniform, constant quality made from various non-recyclable waste materials with variable quality. Its main raw waste material comes from the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) deposited in the Sofia landfill, while the PEF is enhanced by the use of other carefully selected high heat value (HHV) industrial, commercial or biomass waste.

It should be noted that the Zlatna Panega plant has an Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC) permit for the energy recovery of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. The project was carried out in partnership with the Evolution Environmental Group LLC (“E2”), a Company with 35 years of experience in the utilization of alternative fuels in the U.S.A. and Europe.

PEF Production Line
The delivered waste materials are deposited inside the building and fed into the primary shredder. The shredded materials are then transported by belt conveyor to the second stage for further treatment. Separation of the useful light fraction from inert materials (small rocks, glass, metals, dirt, and sand) is achieved though the vibrating screen. After the vibrating screen a wind sifter is used to further separate the light fraction (drier and two dimensional particles) from the heavy fraction (wet, heavier and three dimensional particles). The light fraction is then transported into the secondary shredder. The shredded materials are either stored in piles on the storage floor or sent to the storage silo for feeding to the kiln.

The Waste Materials used for PEF production
In general, many and varied waste materials can be used for the production of PEF. The main waste stream is RDF (Refused Derived Fuel) delivered from three waste separation installations sourcing their original waste from the MSW of the Suhodol Sofia landfill. RDF contains mainly non-recyclable plastics, paper, textile, foils and other burnable materials. The quality of RDF usually varies from day to day and delivery to delivery, so it needs to be standardized to satisfy the energy needs of the clinker production process.

For the improvement of the NCV quality of RDF, high heat value industrial and commercial streams are used, like textiles, plastics, plastic bumpers, plastics from appliances, shredded rubber and other forms of waste. In addition, biomass waste materials such as rice husk, sunflower husk, saw dust, etc. are also used to improve the moisture quality of the RDF.

In all cases, every waste material that is used in the PEF production process undergoes vigorous quality control through initial and process tests, in line with the high standards set by the Zlatna Panega plant’s qualified experts.

Future Steps
Zlatna Panega has just embarked on this new and challenging activity and a lot still has to be learned. The main challenge is to gain further experience in the production of a uniform fuel by using many different materials of inconsistent quality. In the future, the Zlatna Panega plant intends to gradually increase the feeding of PEF by making it more stable and convenient for use.

In the near future, the plant intends to test other high calorific value materials and to include them in PEF production, while at the same time, it intends to start another environmentally friendly project for using animal meal as alternative fuel, as well as locally produced biomass from energy crops.